The exchange rate is a conversion factor, a multiplier or a report, depending on the direction of conversion. Seen from the other liberal views can say that the exchange rate is a price. If the exchange rate can move freely, then the price can move quickly in the economy, bringing together all the foreign goods. But central banks can also declare a fixed exchange rate, offering to supply or buy any amount of domestic or foreign currencies at that rate.
Under this regime, a loss of value, the market usually induced by a deliberate action or policy, called the “devaluation” while an increase in the international value is a “reassessment”. Most fixed rate regimes are based on an international agreement on the respective currency values, often with a formal obligation loans between central banks in case of need, it fixedly for a certain period of time.
Fixed exchange rates are chosen by central banks, but pressures on these fixed rates will generate three categories of these determinants:
i) macroeconomic variables
ii) monetary and financial changes associated with market determined.
iii) The values of the past and expected the same financial market with its autonomous dynamics.
So are these factors that will affect the amendment of the fixed exchange rate. Borrowers with a credit short time, at the same time give their creditors an opinion that when these debts can be settled mature and complete. This thing, this short humamarrësit experience also helps creditors to establish a long-term outlook for borrowers. In the case of devaluation of the national currency borrowers, the borrowers are not alone with this significant risk (ie exchange rate) but also vis creditors. Where the exchange rate from fixed to flexible and zhverësohet local currency, the borrower shall, within a short period of time to repay the debt (thus having the risk of drejtëpdrej bankruptcy), and PWR tw last kwtw risk tw great, refinanced their debt existing or extended due date in order to allow for the possibility borrower to repay the debt, but also fit with the introduction of a flexible exchange rate. From a fixed rate in a zhlerwsim tw monedhws grab suddenly not only borrowers but also investors, and in this case (in the case of the devaluation of the local currency), although obviously would hurt borrowers, again between the two sides will establish a state fear, freezing financial trading relationship between them. Although seemingly Borrowers are those who are losers, investors are in the same position: the risk of default on debt from the borrower.
If we have a basket of 40% US dollars and 60% euros and in our currency is depreciated currency of 10% in relation to the euro and 40% in relation to the dollar, then the loss will be 10% * 0.6 + 40% * 0.4 = 22%.
A devaluation of the national currency should be working in the opposite direction, the improvement of the trade balance for exports and imports, ie in this case rising exports and falling imports.
So imports have a price elasticity of less than 1, it will increase even though the value of the national currency decreased. Thus citizens or companies that have debt in foreign currency (due both to amend current exchange rate, the zhlerësimit) will be able to pay them only in the longer term, ie at the time of export growth. So they get a flow of revenues as a result of export (ie instead enter flow of revenues) but later these revenues again emerge out sëbashu interests to pay off debts.
A devaluation with a large external debt causes large exit payments of interest (expressed in local currency). Similarly, the number of jobs and working conditions is influenced by the degree of international competition and exchange rates tw courses.
Exchange rate depreciation (or amortization) gives rise to inflationary pressures. . In response to inflation, the central bank raises interest rates.
The crisis has a sweeping impact on income distribution. Those few who, will be able to get money to become richer, and people who buy imported goods will cope with inflation and reducing real incomes.
The central bank may use a fixed exchange rate as a nominal anchor for the economy to keep inflation under control, prompting local product faces tough competition, as soon as they decide to raise prices or accept pay higher wages.
So we can say that the depreciation of the domestic currency may come as a result of increased demand for foreign currency. Kept demand for this currency makes it to be stronger in relation to the local currency. At the moment the country’s trade balance is negative, so there are more imports than exports. Strengthening of foreign currency would penalize citizens who have foreign currency loans, which in this case will pay more in monthly installments. On the other hand imports more expensive in the country by increasing prices of imported products, thus being favored exports or domestic products which are cheaper. So, a currency devaluation will lead to a reduction in demand for imported goods, as these goods are more expensive, thus improving the trade balance. As a result of increased eksorteve will have inflow of income, making borrowers already have available more funds to repay the loan taken at the time when the exchange rate was fixed.
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